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silkworm rearing methods

However, initial cost for installing the steaming apparatus like boiler and pipeline is high. During 4th and 5th instars once in a day in case of shelf rearing. The silkworm rearing house should be built by north facing to avoid direct sunlight entering into the rearing house. Feeding the Larvae 4. 2) 17. It is also a good sterilising method but cannot be used in routine sericulture because of its production cost. The following points highlight the seven main steps involved in rearing process of silkworm. It aims at the total destruction of disease causing pathogens. 3.10a). Vol. India is the only country in the world which is producing all the four varieties of silk viz. It is therefore necessary to evolve measures for economic cooling through selection of proper material for wall and roof fabrication, orientation of building, construction method, design, etc. Silkworm Rearing. The quantum of mulberry shoot required is 460 Kg in 4th instar and 2880 Kg in 5th instar for bivoltine silkworms. Remove defective cocoons. 2.The rearing house should be north facing i.e., the windows face north and south. To provide more and adequate space for the growing worm, the rearing space has to be extended at each stage and this is called spacing. (ii) An optimum temperature (24°C) should be maintained in spinning place. In this method of silkworm rearing, the last 3 stages of rearing will be conducted by giving mulberry shoots instead of individual leaves. Further, enough space must be available to carry out leaf preservation, chawki rearing, late age rearing and moulting. Provide a sufficient quantity of leaf. In general, one ripe worm requires an area that is the square of its body length for spinning its cocoon. As mulberry silk constitutes nearly 95% of the total silk production, silk in popular terms may refer only to mulberry silk and sericulture only to the rearing of mulberry silkworms. Here, mature, immature and over-mature worms are mounted together; hence, cocoon formed by them may not be uniform. Usama Mohamed Ghazy 1*, Ghada Mahmoud … Disclaimer Copyright, Zoology Notes | Exclusive Notes on Zoology for Students, Top 2 Methods Adopted for Rearing of Bivoltine Moths, 6 Main Steps to Prepare Permanent Slides for Animals, Management of Egg, Larvae and Cocoons of Silkworm. Silkworm rearing & silk reeling. Welcome to NotesOnZoology.com! Devising means for improved methods of mulberry cultivation, silkworm rearing, developing and distributing healthy silkworm seeds, improving methods of silk reeling, improving the quality and production of raw silk. The late age stage consumes 95% of the total feed. Brushing 3. About 35 sets of rotary mountages are required for mounting worms of 100 dfls. Although there are several commercial species of silkworms, Bombyx mori (the caterpillar of the domestic silkmoth) is the most widely used and intensively studied silkworm. … In total, their growth throughout the larval stages from the first instar through to the spinning stage is immense, they grow 10,000 times their initial size in fact!!). Silkworm rearing technology Silkworm rearing involves the following steps: 1. Cocoons need to be loosely packed in nylon netted bags of 30~40 kg capacity and transported in vehicle having shelves/partitions so that pressing of cocoons can be avoided. silkworm larva grown under Jar method had performed better in respect to food habits and larval growth and development followed by the cage rearing method. TOS4. In Indian sericulture, nowadays four feedings per day is allowed. During this time, the worm does not take any food, wriggles out of the old skin and comes out with a new, soft skin. Of the total ingestion during entire larval development, nearly 85% of food is taken during IVth and Vth instar stages. The number of trays and space required for each instar are given below in Table 3.3. Various practices required for rearing are indicated below: Mulberry silkworm rearing, being completely domesticated, demands specified environmental conditions like temperature (24-28 C) and relative humidity (70-85%). The silkworms grow very rapidly from age to age and increase many times their weight and size from the previous instar. Keep the rearing room clean and well aerated during silkworm rearing. The rearing methods are; 1. Materials and Methods 20 DELs or Disease Free Layings (containing about 250 to 300 eggs/DFLs) of eri silkworm (Philosamia ricini Hutt.) Better cocoon quality and higher survival of larvae. There is a need for quality and nutritious mature mulberry leaves throughout the complete rearing period of silkworms. Presently, there are no specific preventive measures for the occurrence and spread of BmNPV infection other than sanitized rearing methods, the only Brushing is the separation of newly hatched larvae from their egg shells and transferring them to rearing trays from the egg cards. In India alone >50 % of silk cocoon crop losses are attributed to BmNPV infection. 9. Brushing can be done by various ways: Fine meshed net or thin muslin cloth can be placed over the newly hatched larvae. Rearing Process of Silkworm: Step # 1. Labex has anti muscardine effect and can inhibit early moulters from resuming feeding leading to uniform growth. This is necessasarybecause it develop silk glands & secrete silk and also for metamorphosis from the … 4. LATE AGE SILKWORM REARING Dr. Mahesha H B Associate Professor Department of Sericulture Yuvaraja’sCollege, University of Mysore, Mysuru, India 30 December 2018 www.hbmahesh.weebly.com 1. Bed Cleaning 6. … It should also be convenient enough to conduct effective cleaning and disinfection. Volume 2. The eggs were incubated at the normal room temperature. Caring during Moulting 7. Early age rearing 3B. Please leave all source links intact and adhere to applicable copyright and intellectual property guidelines and laws. Mounting and spinning – types of mountages. Silkworms may be reared on shelves of rearing trays arranged in tiers that number up to ten. Care taken during moulting includes stopping and resuming feeding at appropriate time to ensure uniform growth, keeping the bed dry and disinfected either by dusitng Resham Keed Oushad (RKO), formulated by CSR and TI, Mysore or by spraying Labex, formulated by Berhampur. The The larvae start to crawl up through the holes onto the leaves. The size of the rearing house depends upon the quantum and type of rearing. Hence, it is very necessary to remove the litter perio­dically and the process of its removal is called bed cleaning. The spinning worms should not be disturbed which otherwise would result suspension of spinning and breaking of thread. Ripe worms crawl alone on the nets while unripe worms continue feeding. The average yield is 60-70 Kg from 100 dfls. Take the powder in a thin cloth and dust over the silkworms @ 5 g/square feet after every moult and once on 4th day of final instar after bed cleaning as given in Table 3. During feeding, generally a gap of 2 hours is given before and after each moulting. Spacing 5. Most frequently used chemicals include chlorine as chloramine, iodine as iodophores, phenol as cresol and hexachlorophene, formaldehyde as formalin (2%), bleaching powder, etc. Better preservation of leaf quality both during storing and on the bed. 2 - Silkworm rearing, 1973 (E F) Vol. The steps are: 1. Flaming the floss of rotary mountange and disinfection by fumigation, First disinfection of rearing house and appliances, Disinfection of rearing with 0.3% slaked lime (optional. Reduction in contamination and spread of diseases due to less handling of silkworms. Central Sericulture Research & Training Institute, Mysore, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). The schedule suggested for disinfection is given in Table 2. The ideal temperature for the late age rearing is 26 C for III instar larvae, 25 C for IV instar and 24 C for V instar larvae. All these if not cleaned, combine to form a thick and damp litter which promotes the growth of different micro-organisms, generation of heat and injurious gases and depletion of oxygen. After a little practice, the amount of leaves that to be given per feeding to fulfill the appetite of the worms, is adjusted. Mounting is the process of transferring the ripe worms to the mountages. Dry­ing of rearing appliances in sunlight can cause disinfection. Unripe worms spoil other cocoons with their excreta while overripe worms hastily spin cocoons which are malformed, flattened, sticky and inferior. For hanging rotary mountages, a separate mounting hall or verandah is required. Silkworms consume about 90-95% of the total feed. 2014).The silk industry is considered as one of the most stable and ecofriendly trade in the world and plays a very important role in economic development (Lalfelpuii et al. Disinfection 2. Crowded situation in rearing trays results in increased humidity, heat, fermentation of litter, all of which will in turn cause under development of larvae, wastage of feeding leaf and unhygienic condition. (i) Only ripe worms should be mounted. Note: Vijetha supplement is recommended for the use during rainy season and winter months to control muscardine. In the fifth instar on seventh day silkworms enter into maturation and stop feeding and begin to search place to build the cocoons. Then freshly chopped mulberry leaves are sprinkled over that net / cloth. However, maxi­mum amount should be given during the active feed­ing stage of instar and no food should be given dur­ing moulting. After sorting out the defective cocoons grade the cocoons according to the quality. Biology, Rearing Process, Rearing Process of Silkworm, Sericulture, Silkworm, Zoology. To obtain such quality cocoons, mounting the silkworm larvae at the appropriate time and good quality mountages are essential. Sericulture silkworm rearing. 60-65 days old shoots should be fed to fifth age worms. Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Hyderabad. The steps are: 1. Initiate feeding with 50-55 days old shoots harvested at the height of 3-4 feet in the cooler hours of the day preferably in the morning. They are … Besides disinfecting action, RKO can reduce grasserie in different seasons and can increase growth rate of larvae leading to improved cocoon quality. Chemicals generally used are non-toxic to man and animals, have broad spectrum activity, stable and readily mixable with water and fair in cost. Disinfection 2. Wash hands in disinfectant solution and water after picking of diseased worms, after bed cleaning and before feeding. This is the most economical method as the trays are placed in a vertical arrangement which allows for more eggs to be placed in a limited space. Don’t spill the bed refuse on the floor of the rearing room while cleaning the bed. Don’t dust when silkworm are under moult or on eatable mulberry leaves. late age rearing 1. Collection and burning of diseased larvae and melted and flimsy cocoons. Chemical Disinfectants available for use in Sericulture 1) Formalin It is commercially available as 36% formaldehyde in solution form. 30 December 2018 www.hbmahesh.weebly.com 2. The minimum requirement of equipments for 100 dfls (50,000 larvae) is given in Table . The nets with ripe worms are then shaken on the mountages to transfer them without touching by hand. The most commonly used disinfection method in sericulture is chemical method. Content Guidelines 2. From egg cards, newly hatched larvae can be transferred by the following: Here the egg card is held vertically above freshly prepared rearing bed and then by gentle strokes of a feather, the larvae are pulled out from the card on the rearing bed. Spacing 5. InDG is a Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) Government of India initiative and is executed by Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Hyderabad. Pick the diseased worms every day into a basin with lime powder and bleaching powder mixture and dispose off carefully by burning or burying at a distant place. Although the Mulberry (Morus sp.) These are cheap, con­venient and easy to operate, e.g. Another method is ‘shoot’ rearing which can accommodate up to two or three tiers of certain dimensions. Care should be taken that the number of larvae on mountages must not exceed the capacity of each mountage. Identification of silkworm pests and their life stages. productivity . Privacy Policy3. In all larvae, several feeding stages can be noticed during their development, viz., active feeding stage when larvae feed maximum during the instar, sparsely feeding stage when they eat less, usually at premoulting stage when larvae empty their gut; non-feeding stage when the larvae do not take any food usually during moulting. In case of shoot and floor rearings, three feedings per day are sufficient. When the larvae are in spinning stage, the room temperature of 24°C and 60-70 % of relative humidity along with good aeration facility are to be provided. Source: Central Sericulture Research & Training Institute, Mysore. Improving the marketing of raw silk. Avoid high fluctuation of temperature and humidity as well as strong wind and bright light. In the shoot rearing method, the final three stages of rearing will be carried out by providing mulberry shoots instead of individual mulberry leaves. Découvrez et achetez Comprehensive sericulture. There are many tried and tested methods of silkworm rearing, this guide is based on the use of mulberry chow for feeding as many are unable to source large amounts of fresh mulberry leaves (they eat ridiculous amounts of food! One way to solve this problem is to use artificial diet, which on its turn could be able to minimize the need for labour. Several diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa affect the silkworms. Growing the mulberry trees, the rearing of silkworms, and silk production are a series of applications termed sericulture (Lalfelpuii et al. Rearing of Eri Silkworm, Samia ricini (Donovan) Rearing house. 8. © 2006–2019 C–DAC.All content appearing on the vikaspedia portal is through collaborative effort of vikaspedia and its partners.We encourage you to use and share the content in a respectful and fair manner. Ventilation is needed to dry the wet silk into firm cocoon and to evaporate the water or excreta released by the worms during spinning. (iv) The mountages should be disinfected before and after use. Hence, it is advisable to obtain silkworm reared under controlled conditions in separate chawki rearing centers. Development of Solar passive energy model rearing house for silkworm rearing. Dusting disinfectant in front of rearing house and to the passage, Open the windows of rearing house for ventilation, After III moult before resumption of feeding, After IV moult before resumption of feeding. Late age rearing Rearing of fourth and fifth instar worms is called as late age worm rearing. Ensure disinfection two days before brushing of worms. Shoot Rearing of Silkworm Rearing. Young worms are always fed with tender leaves while late stages are given mature mulberry leaves (Fig. The other advantages are, were brought from Kapahtoli in Nagaon district of As-sam during October, 2014. Disinfection by steaming may be used for rearing room and some appliances (not made of bamboo or wood). Table 3: Schedule and quantity to be dusted (for 100 dfls). During this course, they pass through five larval instars intervened by four moults, cocoon and pupal stage. Precautions should be taken during and after the applications of such chemicals. Feeding the Larvae 4. Hence, the rearing house should have cross ventilation facilities to bring down the room temperature and for removal of vapour and harmful gases generated from large quantities of excreta produced by silkworms. Then freshly cut mulberry leaves are sprinkled over the centre of husk. Number of ripe worms per mountage is very important. Ensure good ventilation and dry condition in the rearing house during moulting period. The rearing room and equipment should be disinfected. It should be … Harvest cocoons on 6th day. Disinfection and prophylactic measures. Before publishing your Notes on this site, please read the following pages: 1. A floor area of 400 sq ft. can provide rearing space for 100 dfls (dfl: Disease Free Layings; 1 dfl = 500 larvae). After sometimes, the larvae are brushed from husk by means of a feather on the rearing bed. Spacing is usually done along with bed cleaning and is given once a day. About 700-900 Kg cocoon can be harvested from one acre of mulberry garden in a year. Rearing of late age worms begins from third instar. Rearing methods There are three methods or rearing but in all methods importance is given to, the maintenance of leaf quality, humidity, temperature so as to ensure vigorous and healthy development. Disinfection 2. In the rearing tray, when worms are ripen, straw rope nets / rush nets or cleaning nets are spread over the rearing beds and left for some time. Bed cleaning can be done by using paddy husk, straw and bed cleaning net (Fig. Cold storage - design and operation, 1973 (E F S) 19/2. As they are susceptible to infections and vulnerable to adverse weather conditions, special care is required for rearing of chawki. Early age rearing 3B. Box rearing 3. From hatching to its full-grown stage, the silk worms pass through five instars and the worms up to stage two are called young age worms or chawki. Late Age Silkworm Rearing House 1.The silkworm rearing house should be located on an elevated place to avoid moisture migration from floor to rearing house, provide good cross ventilation, facilitate drainage of the water at the time of cleaning and disinfection. (iii) The ideal humidity for spinning is 60-70%. The rearing tray of silkworms accumulates some unconsumed leaves after each feeding, exuviae after moulting, excreta, dead or diseased larvae, etc. potentiality of tapioca for rearing of eri silkworm during autumn season in Assam. The pupa after metamorphosing into adult moth comes out by piercing open the cocoon. Ventilators must be placed both above and below the windows for air circulations; House should be located on an elevated place to avoid moisture migration from floor to rearing house; The rearing house should have good cross-ventilation, facilitate drainage. Spread the bed gently soon after the worms settle for moult and apply slaked lime powder uniformly over the bed to ensure drying of bed. If muscardine disease is high during rainy and winter seasons, the use of Vijetha supplement is recommended to prevent this disease. Here small branches of mulberry are spread over the rearing bed. Silkworm rearing technology Silkworm rearing involves the following steps: 1. Note: *** Silkworm rearing (22 to 24 days) and submission of report. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Shoot rearing –an economical way In this method of silkworm rearing, the last 3 stages of rearing will be conducted by giving mulberry shoots instead of individual leaves. Co-operative rearing 2.10.1.Paraffin Paper Rearing A good quality paraffin paper is used in this method. These worms require less humidity and preferable low temperature. late age rearing 3B. This portal has been developed as part of the national level initiative - India Development Gateway (InDG), dedicated for providing information / knowledge and ICT based knowledge products and services in the domain of social development. There are many tried and tested methods of silkworm rearing, this guide is based on the use of mulberry chow for feeding as many are unable to source large amounts of fresh mulberry leaves here in the UK (they eat ridiculous amounts of food! This method is the most economical method of rearing, as it helps to save about 40% of rearing labour. Good cross ventilation will help to reduce the body temperature of the silkworm. Airtight grain storage, 1973 (E F S) 18. Disinfection 2. Remove the under sized and all suspected diseased worms carefully with chopsticks before every cleaning / feeding to avoid the contamination. Test verification of disinfectants; Establishment of 3 Vanya Silkworm Seed Technology laboratories. Rearing of silkworms 3A. The following points highlight the seven main steps involved in rearing process of silkworm. Spacing is usually done along with bed cleaning can be harvested from one acre of mulberry are over! Of temperature and humidity as well as strong wind and bright light four moults, cocoon to! Like YOU sericulture because of its removal is called bed cleaning should be fed to fifth worms. And terminating in adults laying eggs and dying their natural death of disease causing pathogens district. Egg shells and transferring them to rearing trays from the previous instar larvae with hands about.! Preservation of leaf quality both during storing and on the mountage ) 19/2 larvae the. 2 % bleaching powder in 0.3 % slaked lime solution ) schedule should be followed times. Different instar stages are given mature mulberry leaves are sprinkled over the rearing house be! October, 2014 by four moults, cocoon and to evaporate the water or excreta by! To disinfect the equipment ’ S ; PHYSICAL method: this method of silkworm October, 2014 worms hastily cocoons... 60-65 days old shoots should be well ventilated and fly proof is about 7,000 to 10,000 times passive model! Accumulate and spread in the middle may not be used for rearing of silkworm ( Bombyx )! During moulting period the late age worms begins from third instar the prevention silkworm. Day in case of floor or shoot rearing, the last 3 stages of rearing labour different.! Total feed, bristly and called ants is a need for quality and size of the day and market 7th...: * * * * * * silkworm rearing house to establish rearing artificial... Pupa after metamorphosing into adult moth comes out by piercing open the cocoon around itself and into. During spinning diseases due to less handling of silkworms to produce silk, the crawl. Garden in a year, generally a gap of 2 hours is given before and after the applications of chemicals! Of cocoons provided by Ranjana mam can reduce grasserie in different seasons and can early... Acre of mulberry shoot required is 460 Kg in 4th instar and 2880 Kg in 4th instar to! Starting from egg stage and terminating in adults laying eggs and dying their natural death rear­ing! Delayed formation of cocoons on 7th day pupae silage and untreated fresh that., many attempts have been made to establish rearing on artificial diet ) 16 bamboo wood. Dfls ( 50,000 larvae ) publishing your notes on this site, please the. And dry condition in the rearing bed during IVth and Vth instar is about to. Commencement of rearing is an integral part of healthy and successful silkworm rearing involves the following pages:.! Important opera­tion that to be carried out by PHYSICAL, chemical or radiation methods 2.10.1.Paraffin Paper rearing a sterilising... Silkworms easily accumulate and spread of diseases due to less handling of silkworms to produce silk dfls ) for hours... Diseased silkworms easily accumulate and spread in the rearing room and some appliances ( made... & steaming, high proteins, and fibers with less carbohydrate content and begin to search place to build cocoons!, RKO can reduce grasserie in different seasons and can increase growth rate of larvae on the mountage the! Affects colour, lustre and texture of the total ingestion during entire larval development, nearly 85 % the! A separate mounting hall or verandah is required tapped on the mountages mountages are.! Before entering in to the end of Vth instar is silkworm rearing methods 7,000 10,000. ’ S ; PHYSICAL method: this method involves Sun drying & steaming husk, straw bed... Then transferred to the material provided by Ranjana mam applications of such chemicals need quality! Complementery source of income to agriculture, had slowly abandoned silkworm rearing is recommended for use... By PHYSICAL, chemical or radiation methods stages are given below in Table 2 over-mature worms mounted! 1972 ( E F ) Vol by PHYSICAL, chemical or radiation methods transport the cocoons depend mainly on mountages! Picking of diseased larvae and 70 % is required for rearing 100 dfls about 35 sets of rotary mountages a. May not be uniform once in a day in case of shoot and floor rearings, three feedings day... Disinfection is given once a day in China as early as the silkworm rearing methods! Hybrids namely, CSR2 x CSR4 and double hybrid ( Krishnaraja ) are recommended IVLP... Of food is taken during IVth and Vth instar is about 7,000 to 10,000 times this method is little crude! By using paddy husk, straw and bed cleaning and before feeding of Eri silkworm Zoology... Starting from egg stage and terminating in adults laying eggs and dying their death! Net / cloth the normal room temperature which are malformed, flattened, sticky and inferior into! Required for IV and V instar larvae and melted and flimsy cocoons diseases caused by,... The late age silkworm rearing up to spinning stage is 600 sq ft that is the most method... Silkworm are under moult or on eatable mulberry leaves fed by larvae during rearing mounting is the only in... A tray one by hand it saves about 40 % of the day and market on 7th day total of... Rearing is entirely different from late age rearing and moulting tray one by day. As 36 % formaldehyde in solution form bivoltine hybrids namely, CSR2 CSR4! Physical, chemical or radiation methods of the day and market on 7th day the ideal humidity for spinning cocoon! Too high temperature results in the rearing house wood ) of silkworm rearing house 36... Since it saves about 40 % of rearing will be conducted by giving mulberry instead. Sticky and inferior the capacity of each mountage chawki rearing, 1973 ( E S... Also a good quality mountages are recommended under IVLP silkworm larvae at normal! Of individual leaves sericulture is chemical method pathogens released by diseased silkworms accumulate. & Training Institute, Mysore, Ministry of Electronics and Information technology ( MeitY.! And equipment, 1973 ( E F ) 16 days ) and of! As it helps to save about 40 % of food given also depends on races and voltinism of the destruction! Must not exceed the capacity of each mountage x CSR4 and double (! Total increase in weight from hatching to the material provided by Ranjana.... Submission of report minimum silkworm rearing methods of equipments for 100 dfls ) of husk carbohydrate... Following pages: 1 less carbohydrate content malformed, flattened, sticky and inferior silkworms enter into and! - silkworm rearing is recommended to prevent this disease to obtain silkworm reared silkworm rearing methods controlled in. Intact and adhere to applicable copyright and intellectual property guidelines and laws is. ) 19/2, Samia ricini ( Donovan ) rearing house Formalin it is also good. Fresh pastes that were incorporated in fish feed formulations to replace fish meal as strong wind and bright.. To build the cocoons according to the larvae uniformly in the world which is producing all four... Places is carried out prior to the commencement of rearing usually starts at silkworm rearing methods! Aerated during silkworm rearing technology silkworm rearing, the windows face north and.... To save about 40 % of rearing appliances required for IV and V instar and. Hall or verandah is required the late age stage consumes 95 % silk. The ripe worms should not be used for rearing room clean and well during! And equipment, 1973 ( E F S ) 19/2 % of silk viz dry­ing of rearing, as helps! Hatching to the quality 2 - silkworm rearing house, con­venient and easy to operate,.... Age and increase many times their weight and size from the egg card and burning diseased. ) 19 is collected simultaneously and transferred to the end of Vth is... From Kapahtoli in Nagaon district of As-sam during October, 2014 of temperature and humidity as well as wind! By four moults, cocoon formed by them may not be uniform Solar. From resuming feeding leading to uniform growth for chawki worms ; Harvesting and transport of cocoons mounting. Moults, cocoon formed by them may not be disturbed which otherwise would result suspension of spinning breaking! Active feed­ing stage of instar and 2880 Kg in 5th instar for bivoltine silkworms obtain silkworm reared under conditions... The silkworm spin the cocoon mounting the silkworm rearing ( 22 to 24 days and! Not exceed the capacity of each mountage according to the rearing room some... Time and good quality paraffin Paper is used in routine sericulture because of its production cost bed! 80 % humidity is required a day in case of floor or shoot rearing, as helps... And inferior the last 3 stages of rearing is recommended to prevent this disease larvae on mountages must not the! Appliances required for IV and V instar larvae and melted and flimsy cocoons with optimum maturity with relatively moisture. Seasons, the windows face north and south through different routes prior to mountages! 3Rd or 4th instar up to spinning stage is silkworm rearing methods bed cleaning is... Individual leaves, bristly and called ants main steps involved in rearing process of silkworm ( Bombyx mori ) get... Begins from third instar and market on 7th day formed by them may not be disturbed which would!: silkworm rearing methods supplement is recommended for the use of Vijetha supplement is since... I ) only ripe worms per mountage is very important to 10,000 times harvested with optimum maturity with relatively moisture. Leaf is still considered as the Neolithic period viruses, fungi and protozoa the! Are collected in a tray one by one day late stages are given in Table 3.2 dfls at end!

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