what is iodine
Updated: September 18, 2020 History of changes to this fact sheet, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements, My Dietary Supplement and Medicine Record, How To Evaluate Health Information on the Internet, NIH Consortium for Advancing Research on Botanical and Other Natural Products (CARBON) Program, Analytical Methods and Reference Materials (AMRM), Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID), Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS) Database. When iodine reaches the bloodstream, it is absorbed by the thyroid which then synthesises the thyroid hormones. Most organic iodine compounds are in the -1 oxidation state. The daily upper limits for iodine are listed below. Always speak to your GP or healthcare provider before taking a new supplement or if you are concerned about nutritional deficiencies. Adding iodine to salt is the most widely used strategy to control iodine. Iodine is a mineral found in some foods. You should be able to get all the iodine you need from a balanced and varied diet, without the need for supplements. Also called iodide, iodine is a type of mineral that’s naturally found in the earth’s soil and ocean waters. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved potassium iodide as a thyroid-blocking agent to reduce the risk of thyroid cancer in radiation emergencies. This article was published on 6 August 2019. Iodine is a nutrient that usually occurs naturally in vegetables, which absorb it through the soil in which they grow. This means it may increase in size in order to hold on to and trap as much iodine as it can. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.) The body does not make iodine so it is essential to source it from a varied and balanced diet. Substantiation is a living, breathing thing. They can tell you if these dietary supplements might interact with your medicines. This can lead to a swelling in the neck or a condition called ‘goitre’ – read more about this on the NHS website. Other indus… Iodine is needed to make essential thyroid hormones. Iodine is present naturally in soil and seawater. Iodine (I) - Iodine with the symbol 'I' is a dark gray or purple blackish nonmetallic element with atomic number 53 in the Periodic Table. Nascent Iodine is regarded as the most ideal form of iodine. Goitrogens are substances that interfere with the way the body uses iodine. Nascent iodine is a highly-energized, pure form of iodine ions that is readily absorbed by the body. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding need to get enough iodine for their babies to grow and develop properly. See our website terms and conditions for more information. Organic milk also has an iodine concentration that is over 40% lower than that of conventional milk. Any mention in this publication of a specific product or service, or recommendation from an organization or professional society, does not represent an endorsement by ODS of that product, service, or expert advice. Check with your healthcare provider before taking iodine for this condition, especially because iodine can be unsafe at high doses. The INMA Mother and Child Cohort Study. Iodine is available in dietary supplements, usually in the form of potassium iodide or sodium iodide. Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet.It may result in metabolic problems such as goiter, sometimes as an endemic goiter as well as cretinism due to untreated congenital hypothyroidism, which results in developmental delays and other health problems.Iodine deficiency is an important global health issue, especially for fertile and pregnant … Iodine forms chemical compounds in several oxidation states: -1, +1, +3, +5, and +7.This is typical of the halogens except for fluorine. A poisonous halogen element having compounds used as germicides, antiseptics, and food supplements, with numerous radioactive isotopes, which are used in diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases and neuroendocrine tumors. Iodine is a trace element that is essential for the body to make thyroid hormones which play an integral role in the growth and development of cells and tissues. Atomic iodine refers to two … What is manganese?What is zinc?What is folic acid?What is phosphorous?What is potassium? The amount of iodine you need each day depends on your age. These hormones are then secreted into the bloodstream and transported to different areas in the body. Iodine intake from supplements and diet during pregnancy and child cognitive and motor development - 2018. It’s a good idea to know how much iodine you’re eating. In general, foods from the sea contain the most iodine, followed by animal foods, then plant foods. If you have any concerns about your general health, you should contact your local health care provider. The thyroid gland takes up nascent iodine and … People should get most of their nutrients from food, advises the federal government's Dietary Guidelines for Americans. It has many oxidation states, iodide, iodate and numerous periodate anions. What foods are naturally high in iodine?Iodine is a component of almost every living plant and animal. A solution of the element in water, along with potassium iodide, which increases its solubility, is sometimes used as a disinfectant, and for the emergency purification of drinking water. Women who are pregnant need about 50% more iodine than other women to provide enough iodine for their baby. Iodine is a trace element that is naturally present in some foods, is added to some types of salt, and is available as a dietary supplement. Suboptimal Iodine Status among Pregnant Women in the Oslo Area, Norway - 2018. Giving iodine supplements to children with mild iodine deficiency improves their reasoning abilities and overall cognitive function. Its oxidizing properties make it effective in killing harmful microorganisms. Getting enough iodine is important for everyone, especially infants and women who are pregnant. High iodine intakes can also cause thyroid gland inflammation and thyroid cancer. Forms of Iodine. As a rule, there’s little or no iodine in food, unless it’s been added… This is just the beginning of the fascinating information about iodine's value and uses. A dietitian explains what this trace element does in the body, its impact on thyroid hormones, how much we need for optimum health and the best food sources. Goiter, an enlarged thyroid gland, is often the first visible sign of iodine deficiency. Brown seaweed such as kelp is a concentrated source of iodine and for this reason, should not be eaten more than once a week, especially during pregnancy. Dietary supplements of iodine-containing kelp (a seaweed) are also available. Here are some examples of what this research has shown. You should be able to get all the iodine you need from a balanced and varied diet. In addition, specialty salts, such as sea salt, kosher salt, Himalayan salt, and fleur de sel, are not usually iodized. Learn iodine atomic number, atomic mass of iodine and iodine … Elemental iodine refers to the atom itself, which is found primarily in the ocean. For more advice on choosing dietary supplements: For information about building a healthy diet. The body does not make iodine so it is essential to source it from a varied and balanced diet. Worldwide, nearly 2 billion people suffer from iodine deficiency, but in the US, it is no longer a common issue, since the normal American diet contains sufficient amounts of iodine. Iodine deficiency can lead to a dysfunction of these tissues and cause symptoms such as dry mouth, dry skin, reduced alertness, brain fog, fibromyalgia, fibrocystic breasts, and many others. The American Thyroid Association recommends that women who are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding take a daily supplement containing 150 mcg iodine as potassium iodide. What are some effects of iodine on health? The body needs iodine to make thyroid hormones. Povidone iodine is sometimes known commercially as Betadine or Aerodine and it can come as povidone iodine solution, povidone iodine ointment, or as a powder. Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Have a question? Though virtually eliminated in the United States and other Western nations with the iodination of salt in the 1920s, this condition still affects about 187 million people in other parts of t… Less severe iodine deficiency can cause lower-than-average IQ in infants and children and decrease adults' ability to work and think clearly. The largest producers of iodine are Japan and Chile. The iodine needed by the body must come from the diet. People who don't get enough iodine cannot make sufficient amounts of thyroid hormone. These hormones control the body’s metabolism and many other important functions. Individuals in the United States can maintain adequate iodine in their diet by using iodized table salt, by eating foods high in iodine, particularly dairy products, seafood, meat, some breads, and eggs, and by taking a multivitamin containing iodine (see below). Fish (such as cod and tuna), seaweed, shrimp, and other seafood, which are generally rich in iodine, Dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, and cheese), which are major sources of iodine in American diets, Iodized salt, which is readily available in the United States and many other countries*, People who do not use iodized salt. These levels do not apply to people who are taking iodine for medical reasons under the care of a doctor. Iodine is a trace mineral found naturally in some foods and added to others. Iodine is necessary for the proper function of many of the body’s tissues including the breasts, pancreas, brain, stomach, adrenal glands, skin, salivary glands, and cerebral spinal fluid. It is also used in making film for cameras, and iodine can be a disinfectant. Getting high levels of iodine can cause some of the same symptoms as iodine deficiency, including goiter (an enlarged thyroid gland). A liquid containing iodine dissolved in ethyl alcohol, used as an antiseptic for wounds. Magazine subscription – save 44% and get a cookbook of your choice. Iodine is an essential mineral you must get from your diet. This can cause many problems. To make adequate amounts of iodine available for proper fetal and infant development, several national and international groups recommend that pregnant and breastfeeding women and infants take iodine supplements. The practice of adding iodine to salt in the … The body needs iodine to make thyroid hormones. People who get marginal amounts of iodine and who also eat foods containing goitrogens. Iodine is a trace element that plays an important role in regulating thyroid hormones. Iodine can be found in table salt and it is also used in the making of certain types of light bulbs. Iodine helps make thyroid hormones, which help keep cells and the metabolic rate (the speed at which chemical reactions take place in the body) healthy. Severe iodine deficiency during childhood has harmful effects on the development of the brain and nervous system. Recommendations for iodine are 150mcg for adults and 200mcg for pregnant and lactating women. Many Australians have enough iodine in their diet, but some don’t. Not enough iodine in the diet can cause serious problems including stunted growth in young children and an enlarged thyroid gland (goitre) in adults. Iodine supplements can interact or interfere with medicines that you take. Seafood curryOne-pan summer eggsCheese, leek & potato tortillaSeafood paella. For more information about building a healthy diet, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate. Getting a very large dose of iodine (several grams, for example) can cause burning of the mouth, throat, and stomach; fever; stomach pain; nausea; vomiting; diarrhea; weak pulse; and coma. Product labels will indicate if the salt is “iodized” or provides iodide. Subscription offer: save 44% and receive a brand-new cookbook. These are used by the body for growth and energy use, as well as brain and bone development during pregnancy and early childhood. Iodine should be … Iodine fulfills a vital function in the body yet must be obtained from outside sources such as seaweed or iodine supplements. The American Academy of Pediatrics has similar guidance. The effects of mild iodine deficiency during childhood are more difficult to measure, but mild iodine deficiency might cause subtle problems with neurological development. Seafood, eggs, milk, and milk products are among the best sources of iodine. But a diet consisting of food grown in soil that lacks iodine can cause an iodine deficiency, leading to goiter. Ask ODS Nuclear accidents can release radioactive iodine into the environment, increasing the risk of thyroid cancer in people who are exposed to the radioactive iodine, especially children. +1 and +3 compounds are quite rare. They can also explain whether the medicines you take might interfere with how your body absorbs or uses iodine or other nutrients. Rich sources of iodine include dairy products, seafood and eggs. What Is Iodine? People living in regions with iodine-deficient soils who eat mostly local foods. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov No standard measurements of iodine in food exist because iodine concentrations vary across the world. Many people are familiar with tincture of iodine, a brown solution of the element in alcohol, used in the field of medicine as a germicide or antiseptic. Iodine is a chemical element that has the symbol Iand atomic number 53. Office of Dietary Supplements Health Professional Fact Sheet on Iodine. In pregnant women, severe iodine deficiency can permanently harm the fetus by causing stunted growth, intellectual disability, and delayed sexual development. Most iodides are colorless or reddish-yellow and are weak reducing agents. These soils produce crops that have low iodine levels. Henjum S, et al. It is essential for metabolism and normal thyroid function in the human body. Beer 52 exclusive offer: Get a free case of craft beer worth £24. Also known as iodide, it is a type of mineral harbored in numerous plant-based and saltwater foods. Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The body also needs thyroid hormones for proper bone and brain development during pregnancy and infancy. She has worked as a dietitian in some of London’s top teaching hospitals and is currently based in Chelsea. Iodine may be an element. Lack of iodine in foods is often the result of deficient soil in which foods are grown. Iodine plays a key role in thyroid health. Iodine is a mineral found in some foods. Eating insufficient amounts of iodine can cause the thyroid to work harder to regulate levels. Office of Dietary Supplements Frequently Asked Questions: Which brand(s) of dietary supplements should I purchase? Here are several examples: Tell your doctor, pharmacist, and other healthcare providers about any dietary supplements and prescription or over-the-counter medicines you take. The availability of iodine in foods differs in various regions of the world. Does iodine interact with medications or other dietary supplements? Most people in the United States get enough iodine from foods and beverages. Average daily recommended amounts are listed below in micrograms (mcg). This fact sheet by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) provides information that should not take the place of medical advice. In children living in iodine-deficient areas, iodine supplements seem to improve both physical and mental development. Yes. Consuming too much iodine is not recommended. More study is needed to fully understand the effects of mild iodine deficiency and of iodine supplements on cognitive function. It mainly affects women of reproductive age but can also occur during menopause. Usually consumed as a nutritional supplement, it has a wide range of benefits that stretch beyond regulating and promoting thyroid function and boosting the metabolism in our body. What kinds of iodine dietary supplements are available? Join the ODS Email List. However, certain groups of people are more likely than others to have trouble getting enough iodine: Iodine deficiency is uncommon in the United States and Canada. The body needs iodine but cannot make it. Povidone iodine is effective at killing a wide range of harmful and pathogenic microorganisms and is always used externally (never ingested). Iodine is found naturally in some foods and is also added to salt that is labeled as "iodized". Oslo, Norway. What happens if I don't get enough iodine? Breastfed infants get iodine from breast milk. Iodine is the heaviest of the stable halogens and is a chemical element. In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may provide nutrients that otherwise may be consumed in less-than-recommended amounts. All health content on bbcgoodfood.com is provided for general information only, and should not be treated as a substitute for the medical advice of your own doctor or any other health care professional. Iodine is a substance that’s found naturally in ocean waters as well as the earth’s soil. Very high doses of iodine supplements might reduce the pain and other symptoms of fibrocystic breast disease, but more study is necessary to confirm this. There are 50,585 studies on Iodine and counting. Atomic number 53. People who don’t eat much of these foods or don’t eat them at all might not get enough iodine. They are present in some plant foods including soy, and, Iodine supplements might interact with anti-thyroid medications such as methimazole (Tapazole®), used to treat, Taking potassium iodide with medicines for high blood pressure known as, The amount of potassium in your blood can also get too high if you take potassium iodide with potassium-sparing. People who follow a vegan diet or who eat few or no dairy products, seafood, and eggs. In industry, one of the biggest uses of iodine is in the production of acetic acid from methanol. Iodine is a chemical element that belongs to the halogen family in the periodic table of elements, and like other halogens is found in diatomic form (I2). As a treatment, iodine helps with goiters (enlargements of the thyroid gland) and high thyroid levels such as in thyroid storm. Thyroid hormones regulate many important biochemical reactions, including protein synthesis and enzymatic activity, and are critical determinants of metabolic activity. Points to Remember. Pregnant women. Of all foods, seaweed (like kelp), is the most well known and reliable source of natural iodine. Iodine is a trace element that is essential for the body to make thyroid hormones which play an integral role in the growth and development of cells and tissues. Iodine is a vital component of thyroid hormones, which is the mineral’s most important and well-understood function. Foods contain vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and other substances that benefit health. So-called iodine "allergies" have nothing to do with iodine! Iodine crystals may be used to disinfect the water in swimming pools. -1 compounds as iodides are the most common. • It helps in detoxifying various systems and eases different processes in the body. about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. It is widely documented that iodine excess should be avoided as there may be harmful consequences for the production of thyroid hormones, both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland). Among the regions with the most iodine-poor soil are mountainous areas, such as the Himalayas, the Alps, and the Andes regions, as well as river valleys in South and Southeast Asia. Iodine is a trace element that is found naturally in foods, is added to various foods, and is available in supplement form. These crystals are legitimately sold and used in various products. However, only about half the prenatal multivitamins sold in the United States contain iodine. Naturally-occurring iodine is a single isotope with 74 neutrons. However, the iodine content of breast milk depends on how much iodine the mother gets.
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